In order for a contract to be concluded, the parties must be subject to mutual consent (also known as the Assembly of Spirits). This result is usually achieved by the offer and acceptance that does not change the terms of the offer, which is known as the “reflection rule.” An offer is a definitive statement about the supplier`s willingness to be bound if certain conditions are met.  If an alleged acceptance alters the terms of an offer, it is not an acceptance, but a counter-offer and, therefore, a rejection of the original offer. The single trade code has the rule of item 2-207, although the UCC only regulates goods transactions in the United States. Since a court cannot read the minds, the intention of the parties is objectively interpreted from the point of view of a reasonable person, as found in the first English case Smith v. Hughes . It is important to note that if an offer indicates a particular type of acceptance, only an acceptance communicated by that method is valid.  Contractual guarantees are less important conditions and are not fundamental to the agreement. They cannot terminate a contract if the guarantees are not fulfilled, but they can claim damages for the losses incurred. You can terminate a contract for convenience or for reasons – check out our guide for termination of a contract for more information. Contracts are valuable if used correctly. Write down these items to make sure your agreements are always protected. An exception arises when advertising makes a unilateral promise, such as offering a reward, as decided in the famous case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co, in 19th century England.
The company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer, proposed a smokeball that, if it sniffed “three times a day for two weeks,” would prevent users from catching the “flu.” If the smokeball does not prevent “the flu, the company promised that it would pay $100 to the user, adding that they deposited “$1000 in the Alliance bank to show our sincerity in the file.” When Ms. Carlill complained about the money, the company argued that the complaint should not be considered a serious and legally binding offer; instead, it was a “simple mess”; However, the Court of Appeal found that Carbolic had made a serious offer to a reasonable man and found that the reward was a contractual undertaking. Some contracts may indicate what should be paid in the event of an infringement. This is often called liquidated damage.