The Copenhagen 2009 non-binding agreement, which was concluded by only 114 of the 194 contracting parties (UNFCCC, 2010) – in many respects, a precursor to the Paris Agreement (Bodansky, 2016) – signalled an abandonment of Schedule I/non-Annex I by proposing that the least developed countries and SIDS are more flexible in implementing measures to combat climate change than other non-annex countries I (UNFCCC, paragraph 5 2010). In addition, priority will be given to financing adjustment for the “most vulnerable developing countries,” in particular by mentioning the least developed countries, sidS and Africa (UNFCCC, paragraph 8 in 2010). Finally, “incentives” should be provided for low-emission developing countries (without defining them) so that they can continue their low-carbon development (UNFCCC, paragraph 7 in 2010). The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  “A safer, safer, more prosperous and freer world.” In December 2015, President Barack Obama envisioned leaving today`s children when he announced that the United States, along with nearly 200 other countries, had committed to the Paris Climate Agreement, an ambitious global action plan to combat climate change. Finally, the self-differentiation of technology transfer assistance in NPNs is consistent with the specific needs of the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC, 2015); The data is presented in the preamble. In total, 63% of emerging economies and 76% of LDCs and SIDS depend on technology transfers (see Figure 6). The Paris Agreement is an environmental agreement that was adopted by almost all nations in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative effects.
The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while continuing to pursue ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement provides for the commitment of all major emitters to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. It provides developed countries with a means to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts and establishes a framework for monitoring, reporting and strengthening countries` individual and collective climate goals. A “national communication” is a kind of report presented by countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Developed countries are required to submit national submissions every four years and developing countries should do so.    Some least developed countries have not submitted national communications in the past 5-15 years, mainly due to capacity constraints.