Dundee Ducks

India China Lac Agreement

10

Dec 20

0

The English text of the protocol, signed in New Delhi on 11 April 2005, is on the bilateral/multilateral documents page of the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MEA). A copy and summary of the protocol can also be accessed in the UNITED Nations Peacemakers Database and the AP-X Peace Agreement database. The aim of the protocol is to implement previous agreements and “modalities for implementing confidence-building measures, including through procedures for exchanging information on troop movements and holding semi-annual meetings on border issues.” They also agreed to resolve by diplomatic means any violation of the treaty or a solution. Signed in New Delhi on January 17, 2012, available in the Chinese MFA contract base in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian MEA database on Indian contracts. Both sides agreed to establish the WMCC to address important border issues related to peacekeeping and calm in the border regions of India and China. (Article 1) The WMCC will be led by an Indian MEA official at the joint secretaries level and an official at the executive level of the Chinese AMF and will be composed of diplomatic and military officials from both sides. (Article 2) Signed in New Delhi on November 29, 1996, available in the Chinese AMF contract base in English, Chinese and Hindi. Copies and summaries of the agreement are also available in the UNITED Nations Peacemakers Database and the University of Edinburgh`s AP-X Peace Agreements database. According to the UN peacemakers` website, the agreement allows for “military disclosure when the parties conduct border exercises and downsizing in border areas. In addition, parties may, by invitation, observe and inspect troop movements in any other territory.┬áIn this agreement, the two sides agreed to reduce or limit their armed forces in mutually agreed geographical areas along the ZONE. It defines the main categories of armaments to be reduced or limited: “Battle tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, guns (including caps) of 75 mm or more caliber, mortars of 120 mm or more caliber, surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and any other conventionally agreed weapons system.” (Article 3) “Each party must open fire, biodegrade, use hazardous chemicals, carry out explosive operations or hunt with rifles or explosives within two kilometres of the effective control line.” (Article 6) A key element of the 1993 and 1996 agreements is that both sides limit their forces to a minimum in areas along the ZONE, Singh said. However, the agreements do not specify the minimum level.

The 1996 agreement limits the use of large categories of armaments near the LAC, including tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, 75 mm or more caliber guns, mortars of 120 mm or more, and various missiles. It also limits combat aircraft to flights within 10 km of the LAC. It states that neither party must “be fire-free, biodegrade, use hazardous chemicals, carry out explosive operations or use rifles or explosives within a two-kilometre radius” of the LAC. Signed in New Delhi on April 11, 2005, available in the Chinese AMF contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian treatment base MEA. Article 1 states that “differences in the issue of borders should not affect the overall development of bilateral relations. Both sides will resolve the border issue through peaceful and friendly consultations. Since the Galwan conflict, there have been requests to review agreements from different parties. Following the recent surge in tensions on the north and south shores of Pangong Tso during the recent meetings between the defence and foreign ministers of the two countries in Moscow, the two sides agreed to respect all existing border agreements, maintain peace and calm in border areas and avoid “any action that could aggravate